Arthritis signals people in a variety of ways. Joints might crack when you suddenly stand up or move. Other joints may be stiff and creak. Maybe pain occurs, when you’re trying to open a jar or type on your keyboard.

Arthritis means “joint inflammation” and has over 100 related conditions or types of disease. Untreated, it can advance, resulting in joint damage that is difficult to undo or reverse. So early detection and treatment are important.

The two most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although both have similar symptoms, both happen for different reasons.

Pneumonia is a very serious condition that also has some very severe complications.

Pneumonia is in third place on the list of most frequent causes of hospitalization. More than a million and a half people that suffer from pneumonia are hospitalized every year.

Although most of the people that suffer from pneumonia respond very well to treatment and most of them are cured, the infection caused by pneumonia is still a serious problem that can cause a lot of complications.

In some countries, pneumonia is the first cause of death because of an infection.

Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli.

It is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly other microorganisms, certain drugs and other conditions such as autoimmune diseases.

Typical symptoms include a cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.

Diagnostic tools include x-rays and the culture of the sputum. Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available.

Treatment depends on the underlying cause. Pneumonia presumed to be bacterial is treated with antibiotics.

If the pneumonia is severe, the affected person is admitted to the hospital.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.

The main symptoms include shortness of breath and cough with sputum production.

COPD is a progressive disease, meaning it typically worsens over time.

Eventually, everyday activities such as walking or getting dressed become difficult.

Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are older terms used for different types of COPD.

The term “chronic bronchitis” is still used to define a productive cough that is present for at least three months each year for two years.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a long-term lung condition that makes it hard for you to breathe.
Types of COPD

COPD is an umbrella term used when you have one or more of these conditions:

Emphysema: This results from damage to your air sacs (alveoli) that destroys the walls inside them and causes them to merge into one giant air sac.

It can’t absorb oxygen as well, so you get less oxygen in your blood.

Damaged alveoli can make your lungs stretch out and lose their springiness. Air gets trapped in your lungs and you can’t breathe it out, so you feel short of breath.

Bronchitis is an inflammation or swelling of the bronchial tubes (bronchi), the air passages between the mouth and nose and the lungs.

More specifically, bronchitis describes a condition where the lining of the bronchial tubes becomes inflamed.

Individuals with bronchitis have a reduced ability to breathe air and oxygen into their lungs; also, they cannot clear heavy mucus or phlegm from their airways.

Fast facts about bronchitis

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