Thyroid cancer is not a common disease, can occur in anyone and even though it requires adequate treatment, unlike other types of cancer the thyroid can be cured most of the time.

Although thyroid cancers are more common in females, males tend to have a greater risk than females for cancer occurring.

Thyroid cancer includes many types of cancers, the most common types are papillary, follicular or mixed papillary and follicular forms and on the other hand, the less common types that affect the thyroid are medullary cancer, anaplastic cancer, and lymphoma.

In addition to this, unlike other types of thyroid cancer, medullary thyroid cancer is a severe form which in many cases may involve other parts of the body such as endocrine glands, pituitary, adrenal, pancreas, and parathyroid glands, an involvement which is known as Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome.

It is important to note that even though this type of cancer is quite unusual to be transmitted, patients with medullary cancer should ensure that family members will take some tests in order to be sure that they are not in danger.

Specialists have discovered that thyroid cancer can occur due to certain factors.

For example, x-ray treatments that used to be very popular a few years ago and were used to treat certain affections such as acne, blood vessel tumors of the face, enlarged thymus, sore throat, chronic coughs and even excess facial hair are no longer performed due to their negative effect for the thyroid gland which tends to be very sensitive to radiation.

An important contributing factor for the occurrence of thyroid cancer is the prolonged exposure to head and neck irradiation in childhood and even adulthood.

Treatments for thyroid cancers are various and depend on the stage and type of thyroid cancer of the patient.

For instance, a first step is the confirmation of a thyroid nodule is present and involves the usage of scanning and ultrasound procedures.

Moreover, a better procedure for diagnosing the patient who is suspected of thyroid cancer is a fine needle aspiration biopsy.

Even though many surgeons consider that it is enough to remove just the affected part of the thyroid gland, it has been considered that a whole removal of the gland may help more and also will prevent a possible recurrence of cancer.

Although a Thyroidectomy is an efficient procedure, the risks can be very severe (deficiency in calcium by the inadvertent removal of nearby parathyroid glands and in some cases the damaging of the vocal cord).

When cancer tends to spread from the thyroid glands to lymph nodes near the neck, a surgery called neck dissection is necessary in order to remove the tumor.



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