April 2021
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Of primary concern to the aquarist is the management of the waste produced by an aquarium’s inhabitants. Fish, invertebrates, fungi, and some bacteria excrete nitrogen waste in the form of ammonia.

Ammonia is also produced through the decomposition of plant and animal matter, including fecal matter and other detritus. Nitrogen waste products become toxic to fish and other aquarium inhabitants at high concentrations.

When fish are put into an aquarium, waste can quickly reach toxic concentrations in the enclosed environment unless the tank is cycled to remove waste.

The process

Large volumes of water enable more stability in a tank by diluting effects from death or contamination events that push an aquarium away from equilibrium.

Several nutrient cycles are important in the aquarium. Dissolved oxygen enters the system at the surface water-air interface. Similarly, carbon dioxide escapes the system into the air.

The phosphate cycle is important, although often overlooked, nutrient cycle. Sulfur, iron, and micronutrients also cycle through the system, entering as food and exiting as waste.

Appropriate handling of the nitrogen cycle, along with supplying an adequately balanced food supply and considered biological loading, is enough to keep these other nutrient cycles in approximate equilibrium.

To keep water conditions at suitable levels, aquariums should contain at least two forms of filtration: biological and mechanical.

Chemical filtration should also be considered under some circumstances for optimum water quality. Chemical filtration is frequently achieved via activated carbon, to filter medications, tannins, and/or other known impurities from the water.

Practical limitations, most notably the weight of water (1 kilogram per liter (8.345 lb/U.S. gal; 10.022 lb/imp gal)) and internal water pressure (requiring thick glass siding) of a large aquarium, restrict most home aquaria to a maximum of around 1 cubic meter in volume (1000 L, weighing 1,000 kg or 2,200 lb).

An aquarium is a variety of any size having at least one transparent side in which aquatic plants fish or animals are kept and displayed.

Fishkeepers use aquaria to keep fish, invertebrates, amphibians, aquatic reptiles, such as turtles, and aquatic plants.

Over time, there has been an increasing appreciation of the usefulness of access to an aquarium to provide potential stress reduction and improvement of mood in people observing aquatic life.

According to the research of having an aquarium are many health benefits like reducing stress, blood pressure and heart rate improvement, better quality sleep, reduce anxiety and pain, therapy of excited children, Alzheimer’s therapy and improve productivity.

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